Abstract

Provide a guided tour of a virtual simulation lab (VSL) showcasing the customizable robust simulations that furnished the backdrop for the VR pilot study:
Purpose:
Examine whether an educational intervention with a pilot Contemporary Immersive Virtual Reality Simulation (CIVRS) builds knowledge and is feasible to implement among nursing students and faculty.
Methods:
Survey sampling, quasi-experimental, one group pre- and post-test design. Participants consisted of 21 undergraduate students and 10 undergraduate faculty. Instruments consisted of Virtual Presence Questionnaire (VPQ), Virtual Reality Sickness Questionnaire (VRSQ) and a Knowledge Test (pre- and post-test). VR airway intervention consisted of six narrated lessons: 1) headtilt/chin-lift with use of the Bag Valve Mask (BVM), 2) Oropharyngeal Airway (OPA), 3) Nasopharyngeal Airway (NPA), 4) King™ Laryngeal Airway Tube (LT), 5) Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) and 6) Endotracheal Tube (ET).
Results:
Normality testing demonstrated the faculty and student pre- and post-test differences to be normally distributed. Faculty mean post-test scores were significantly higher than faculty pre-test scores (p<.0001). Faculty had a mean pre-test score of 9 (SD=3.0) while the mean post-test score was 13 (SD=1.8). This average four-point change was of practical significance representing a 44 percent increase in the average score. The effect size was 1.76 (Cohen, 1988) or between very large and huge (Sawilowsky, 2009). Average student mean post-test scores were significantly higher than mean pre-test scores (p<.0001). Students had mean pre-test scores of 6 (SD=2.7) while the mean post-test score was 12 (SD=2.7). This average six-point change was of practical significance representing a 100 percent increase in scores. The effect size was 2.33 (Cohen, 1988) or huge (Sawilowsky 2009). Conclusions: The VR airway lab is an efficacious means of teaching difficult airway management skills to nursing students. The intervention was widely accepted by students and faculty, showed a high level of virtual presence, no cybersickness, and significantly improved knowledge of airway management (p<.0001). Biography

Dr. Dee McGonigle is the Director of the Virtual Learning Experiences Simulation
Excellence (VLESE) in the Center for Transformational Education and Learning
Innovation (TELI) at Chamberlain University and Professor in the Graduate Program in the Chamberlain College of Nursing. She has 44 years of experience in teaching and learning that includes nursing informatics, serious gaming, simulation, and virtual learning with the realities, especially VR.
Dr. McGonigle defined informatics in 1991. She co-founded the Online Journal of Nursing Informatics
(OJNI), a professional, scholarly, peer-reviewed journal in 1996 for which she was the Editor in Chief for
17 years through 2013. OJNI is currently published by the Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society (HIMSS). In 2014, Dr. McGonigle was the first one honored as a Platinum Award recipient from the Online Journal of Nursing Informatics. She developed the Foundation of Knowledge Model, the ETHICAL Model used to address ethical challenges brought about by the volatile information age and co-developed the Faculty Administrators Students Technology Strategic Integration Model (FAST SIM); the FAST SIM provides a framework from which to guide the process of technology integration into the nursing curriculum focusing on virtual simulation from the perspectives of the triad: faculty, administrator, student.
Dr. McGonigle has received over $870,000.00 in funding, presented internationally and nationally, authored workbooks, book chapters and more than 130 publications. Dr. McGonigle co-authored four textbooks: 1) The nursing informatics text, Nursing Informatics and the Foundation of Knowledge took second place as AJN’s 2014 Information Technology/Social Media Book of the Year in its 5th edition being released 2021; 2) Informatics for Health Professionals in its 2nd edition 2020, selected as a Core Title in Nursing Informatics by Doody’s Core Titles in the Health Sciences that lists the most distinguished titles in clinical medicine, nursing, allied health, and the basic sciences; 3) The text written for nurse educators to help them assimilate technology to enhance teaching and learning, Integrating
Technology into Nursing Education: Tools for the Knowledge Era, was AJN’s 2010 first place Technology Book of the Year; and 4) Virtual Simulation in Nursing Education released in 2018.
As part of the Nursing Informatics Research Team (NIRT), she led the development of an online selfassessment tool for level 3 and level 4 nursing informatics competencies, NICA L3/L4, which was cited in ANIA’s (2014) Nursing Informatics Today and ANA’s (2015) NI Scope and Standards document. Dr. McGonigle was a research team member for the development of the online self-assessment tool, TANIC, for basic level 1 and level 2 nursing informatics competencies based on the TIGER initiatives. In 2018, she was Co-PI: Evaluation of Virtual Reality Teaching and Learning Intervention research that was published in Clinical Simulations in Nursing in 2020.

Dr. McGonigle’s continuous and enduring impact on nursing informatics nursing education and virtual simulation have been recognized; she is a Fellow in the American Academy of Nursing since 2006 and a
Fellow in the NLN Academy of Nursing Education since 2013. She was the second President of the Division of Learning and Performance Environments (DLPE) for the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) in 1998.

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