• Taibah University, Saudi Arabia
  • Title:Management of an Emergency Tooth Extraction in Diabetic Patients on the Dental Chair
  • Time :


Background and objective:
Approximately 75% of diabetic patients in Saudi Arabia had poor glycaemic control. A high proportion of these patients will attend dental surgery clinics for treatment. Therefore, dentists should be well-prepared to control any complications they might arise on the dental chair during the dental procedures. Management of the associated risk factors is important to limit disease complications and improve the health of patients with diabetes. The objectives of this review were to determine the maximum acceptable level of blood glucose for tooth removal in diabetics, show a systematic technique for the management of patients with diabetes on the dental chair. By using PRISMA guidelines, analysis of the published articles and reports across the world is considered one of the most appropriate available methods to obtain strong evidence about the acceptable levels of blood glucose where teeth extraction can be done safely.
A total of 1080 studies were retrieved using the search strategy. After screening 185 titles, abstracts and 85 full-text articles, 36 studies were included. The outcome of this systematic
review revealed that fasting blood glucose level of 240 mg/dl is a critical point for any dental treatment because the warning signs of diabetes start coming out. Maximum acceptable levels of blood glucose for removal of teeth in diabetics are 180 mg/dl (before meal) and 234 mg/dl (2 h after a meal). High blood glucose levels reduce the secretion of nitric oxide (powerful vasodilator) in the body which leads to poor circulation and slow-healing socket. Uncontrolled diabetics are at high risk of infection because of the high ketone levels in the blood.
Fasting blood glucose level of 180 mg/dl is a cut-off point for any selective dental extraction. However, Random blood glucose level of 234 mg/dl (13 mmol/l) is a cut-off point for an emergency tooth extraction. Tightly controlled diabetic patients (blood glucose level below 70 mg/dl) are susceptible to hypoglycemia.


Dr Giath Gazal is an Associate Professor and Consultant in the Oral and Maxillofacial Department in the Taibah College of Dentistry, Taibah University,Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

  • University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
  • Title:Relationship between Job Burnout and Perceived Organizational Support of Nurses under the Two-Child Policy
  • Time :


Objective: To investigate the status of job burnout and perceived organizational support of nurses under the two-child policy, and to explore their relationship. Methods: 445 nurses were investigated with Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and Nursing Organization Support Scale.
Results: The total scores of job burnout and organizational support were 36.65±19.79 and 53.53±10.70 respectively. Job burnout was positively correlated with perceived organizational support (P<0.01). Conclusions: Job burnout and perceived organizational support of nurses are moderate under the two-child policy. Nursing administrators should provide and implement targeted organizational support measures to promote nurses' physical and mental needs and improve nursing quality.


I am 52 years old and I have been working for 34 years. I am the director of nursing in the Second People’s Hospital of Foshan. As the vice chairman of nursing Economic Management Committee of Guangdong Nursing Association, the member of Administrative Management Committee of Guangdong Nursing Association and the vice chairman of Foshan Nursing Association, I have accomplished 6 research projects. Meanwhile, 9 papers have been published during this time. I have been invited to give speeches for many times, thus, I am good at presentation skills. Seventeen years ago, when SARS broke out, I worked in the front line and won the title of “Advanced Individual in fighting against SARS”. 17 years later, when the COVID-19 occur, I joined the war again together with 120 nurses from Foshan to Wuhan, achieving initial success.

  • Hiroshima University, Japan
  • Title:Actual Conditions and Issues of Disaster Preparedness for Students Enrolled in Special Needs Schools
  • Time :


Purpose: Students with intellectual, physical, and other disabilities attend special needs schools. Based on the assumption that in the event of a disaster students in a special needs school would not be able to go home, we checked the stockpiles of emergency supplies held in a special needs school.
Methods: We checked stockpiles in a special needs school for students with physical disabilities or health impairments. We further compared the amount of emergency goods with recommendations of researchers.
Results: There were 141 students (from preschool through high school) and 174 teaching staff at the school. The food stocks for children consisted of 550 meals of pregelatinized rice, 100 meals of rice porridge, and approximately 700 meals of pregelatinized rice, cookies, and canned bread for teaching staff. In addition, there were 900 two-liter plastic bottles of drinking water as well as five generators (gasoline or gas cartridge type), eight portable cookstoves, and 48 gas cartridges. There were also spare clothes and disposable diapers for children that had been prepared by their parents as a daily reserve in classrooms, but insufficient for more than one day (which would likely be necessary in a disaster situation). There was only standard everyday medical equipment, such as bag valve masks, pulse oximeters, oxygen cylinders, and sputum aspirators.
Conclusion: In previous disasters, local governments have been able to prepare support for each shelter in around three days. The stocks of food and drinking water were found to be adequate for this period. However, studies have pointed out that shelters should store special foods such as tube-feeding nutrients, diabetic diet foods, and allergy-free food. Even though some of the children at the school need tube-feeding nutrients and allergy-free food, there were no stocks on hand. Moreover, there were no spare clothes for children, medical equipment, batteries, or manual generators. The stockpiles in this school did not consider the needs of the children based on current research. It is recommended that a budget be created, a checklist drawn up of stockpiles that meet the needs of the children enrolled in the school, and measures taken to check these stockpiles periodically.


TAMURA Hiroshi, B.A., M.S.W. Health Sciences Major, Doctoral Course, Division of Nursing Science,
Hiroshima University. When I was in university, I majored in English literature.I studied English poetry, especially “Songs and Sonnets” written by John Donne (1572-1631).I studied School Social Work in my Master’s program. I’m researching the functions of welfare shelters. I have been working in Ehime prefecture for about 18 years as an English teacher in high schools and special needs school.

  • Hiroshima University, Japan
  • Title:Evaluation of Basic Training for Current Public Health Nurses to Educate Residents on Genetic Knowledge
  • Time :


Access to genetic information has become easier. For residents to use genetic information for early detection and prevention of disease without discrimination and prejudice, knowledge of proper genetics is required. To date, public health nurse education has not kept pace with advances in genetics. The purpose of this study was to provide current public health nurse education for understanding genetics and diversity, and evaluate it.
This was a semi-pilot study involving a single group. There were 23 public health nurses who cooperated. The average years of experience was 11.9 years. A questionnaire was created for the educational goals on the five-point Likert scale. Goals include the following: Cognitive domain: can explain genomic diseases. Affective domain: interested in human genetics.
Psychomotor domain: Residents can respond by using genetic knowledge. Each area has a maximum of 15 points. The case is of “a man who is worried about familial hyperlipidemia at a medical checkup.” The consultation was considered in advance, and was considered again after the lecture. The study has been approved by a relevant ethics committee (approval number E-1776). The composition was evaluated by the ARCS model. A Wilcoxon signed rank test was used. P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
The mean before score was 6.3 and the mean after was 9.3 (p <0.001) for the goal of being able to explain genomics disorders. The mean score for the goal of interest in human genetics increased from 8.5 to 11.0 (p <0.001). The score for the goal of being able to respond to the residents using genetic knowledge also increased significantly from 4.4 to 8.1 (p <0.001). The mean of Attention was 4.30 (maximum 5), Relevance was 4.35, Confidence was 3.13, and Satisfaction was 3.91. Conclusion The effects of current public health nurse education on basic knowledge and attitudes about genomics were recognized. In the composition evaluation, participants highly evaluated Attention and Relevance. The state of high lipids is a situation in which a public health nurse provides life guidance during a medical examination. It is believed that the job-related situations experience by public health nurses is a result of using the state of high lipids as teaching materials in genetics. Confidence in composition evaluation was low compared to others. Findings suggested that multiple training sessions were needed to build confidence. Biography
Professor at Hiroshima University, School and Public Health Nursing.I am in charge of education for public health nurses and school nurses. These occupations support people’s healthy lives.
It provides support for people to gain basic knowledge about genetics and diseases in their daily lives. I am worried that children will have easy access to genetic information.In Japan, animals are applied to the year of birth. I was born in a mouse year.I use it as my symbol instead of a photo. The mouse is on my homepage at the university.

  • University of Alicante, Spain
  • Title:Gender Equality in Education Systems: A Scoping Review
  • Time :


Gender perspective is essential in order to evaluate strategies aimed to generate equal opportunities and innovate in coeducational methodologies, which are oriented to the elimination of sexist stereotypes that produce gender inequalities. Thus, the main aim of this paper is showing the scientific evidence related to coeducational practises and their social impact on education systems. Coeducation has been understood as an educational approach oriented to promote gender equality and to create equal opportunities through educational methodology. The coeducation has been gaining importance in recent years given the interest of the gender studies issues.
In order to synthesize the scientific evidence gathered for the research issue, we carried out a systematic selection process (Scoping Review). Finally, the Scoping Review includes 18 articles from six different databases. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were considered before the review. Additionally, an ad hoc protocol was developed, which allowed extracting relevant information pertaining our research question.
The research found that there is still scare scientific evidence of coeducational interventions within the education system. Educational laws of different social contexts have been implementing gender equality, but, for the most part, a gender perspective has not been present in such modification. Moreover, it has been observed that the issue of gender equality and education has become widespread since the 90s, when the Fourth World Conference of Women took place in Beijing (1995).
On the other hand, the study reveals how the coeducational interventions have focussed primarily on equal access in the education system, but, some forms of discrimination based on sex still thrives within classrooms and promotes by hidden curriculum. Also, there has been an apparent lack of teacher training in gender equality and feminist theory for the implementation of coeducational pedagogies.
Thus, the results show the need to promote legislation reform based on the coeducational interventions and the necessity to promote specific teacher training in gender and equality.


PhD student in Interuniversity Doctorate in Interdisciplinary Gender Studies, in the research line of “Gender, gender violence and education” (University Institute for Gender Studies Research, University of Alicante). In addition, I am a Social Worker graduated from the University of Alicante with a Masters in Equality and Gender in the Public and Private sphere (Equality Agent) from the Jaume I University. On the other hand, I have the university degree of Technician in Equality Training gender, Expert in Intervention with male assailants of gender-based violence, Expert in the implementation of gender equality in public administration, among other degrees related to gender equality, education and gender mainstreaming.
I have contributed scientifically in various international conferences and seminars. Recently I have published a scientific article in “Children and Youth Services Review” (Aragonés-González, M., Rosser-Limiñana, A., & Gil-González, D. (2020). Coeducation and gender equality in education systems: A scoping review. Children and Youth Services Review, 111, 104837).

  • University General Hospital of Patras, Greece
  • Title:Diagnosis of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors - Review of the Literature
  • Time :


Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) represent rare malignancies of mesenchymal origin that can appear at any site of the gastrointestinal tract. Their classification, patient treatment and prognosis had been a source of controversy. The biology of these tumors revealed association to the type III tyrosine kinase receptor and the KIT CD117 protein expression. GIST mesenchymal lesions derive from the interstitial cells of Cajal. Classification methods include the one by Miettinen and Lasota and the ‘‘modified NIH classification’’. Histologically, the diagnosis of GIST falls into one of the following categories: spindle cell type (70%), epithelioid type (20%), or mixed type (10%). Histological diagnosis is usually performed via echoendoscopy-guided-biopsy or CT-guided percutaneous biopsy.


Panagiota Xaplanteri has graduated from Medical School, Patras University in 1999 and acquired the medical specialty of Biopathology (Laboratory Medicine) in 2007. She has completed her PhD in 2008 from Medical School, Patras University, Greece and her MSc in Health Care Management, Hellenic Open University in 2018. She has worked in the following positions:
•Senior Assistant, Department of Microbiology, University General Hospital of Patras, Patras, Greece, 29/9/2015-today
•Part time Assistant Professor, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Patras, Greece, 2019-today
•Part time Lecturer/Assistant Professor, School of Sciences of Health and Care, Technological Educational Institute of Western Greece, Patras,2007-2019
•She has published more than 20 papers.

  • The People’s Hospital of Deyang City, China
  • Title:Caregiver Burden: A Concept Analysis
  • Time :


Objective: Caregiver burden is used frequently within the nursing literature. The purpose of this paper is to provide clarity surrounding the concept caregiver burden.
Methods: An electronic search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, Health Source Nursing/Academic Edition and Academic Search Complete (ASC) of EBSCO, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Google Scholar were searched with a limit of 10 years and published in the English or Chinese language. The paper adopted the framework by Walker and Avant. The attributes, antecedents, consequences and uses of the concept were identified.
Results: At total of 33 articles were included. The three attributes of caregiver burden were identified as self-perception, multifaceted strain, and over time. The antecedents included insufficient financial resources, multiple responsibility conflict, lack of social activities. The consequences of caregiver burden resulted in negative change which included decreased care provision, decrease in quality of life, physical and psychological health deterioration.
Conclusion: A definition of caregiver burden was developed. Tools to measure caregiver burden were identified. The findings from this analysis can be used in nursing practice, nursing education, research and administration.


I have almost 9 years of nursing experience and have worked in hepatobiliary surgery department at The People’s Hospital of Deyang City, Sichuan province, China.
I graduated in June 2020 in 5th International Master of Science in the nursing program from the Institute of Technology Tralee, Ireland. And obtained a first-class honour degree.

  • GGZ Noord-Holland-Noord, Netherlands
  • Title:The Role of the Nurse in RecoverE, Implementation of Community Mental Health Teams
  • Time :


RecoverE is a multinational, multi-site project with as aim to implement community mental health teams in Croatia, Montenegro, Romania, Bulgaria and North Macedonia. Clinical staff were trained and are supported to form a mental health team offering ongoing community treatment and outreach to people with severe mental illness who would otherwise be admitted to a hospital ward.
The aim of the workshop is twofold:
1. to inform participants about the RecoverE research project (LaRge-scalE implementation of COmmunity based mental health care for people with seVere and Enduring mental ill health in EuRopE). This is an example of a European collaboration involving 16 consortium partners under the project management of the Trimbos Institute, The Netherlands. The aims, methods and organisation of the project will be discussed.
2. Participants will take part in one of the sessions used in the training programme aimed at the role the nurse can take within an interdisciplinary team. Aims of this session are clarifying the nurse’s role, emancipation of the nursing discipline and discussion skills to work as an independent professional alongside other disciplines.


Shuna Vanner is an English national who retrained as a nurse in The Netherlands, specializing in the field of mental health. She has been working as a clinical nurse specialist within GGZ Noord Holland Noord since 2017 where she is a treatment coordinator on an open ward for intensive treatment and an advisor on care development projects. She is local project leader for RecoverE and has written and delivered the training for the project’s sites.

  • Kansai University of Nursing and Health Sciences, Japan
  • Title:Issues Regarding Assistance of one another among Residents to Maintain Activities in Depopulated Areas
  • Time :


Purpose: Concerning the health policies in depopulated areas and the measures regarding elderly persons, the residents must perform activities themselves rather than being directed by the government. For example, residents may assist each other to evacuate during a disaster and also with daily shopping. With the declining population, public finances would be reduced, and therefore, mutual assistance among residents would become essential. In Japan, self-help and mutual assistance have been introduced in governmental policies. However, whether the residents are truly aware of each other’s assistance remains unexamined.
Community involvement will not be activated if mutual assistance is not perceived similar to the perception of public health nurses. Fostering awareness of mutual assistance among residents is necessary to maintain villages in depopulated areas through self-help and mutual assistance. Therefore, we aimed to clarify the awareness of mutual assistance among residents in depopulated areas.
Methods: A semi-structured interview was conducted with the participants (14 elderly men, aged 65 years or above, living in a depopulated area) using an interview guide. The participants were asked the question, “what comes to mind on hearing the phrase ‘mutual assistance’?” The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The perception of mutual assistance was extracted using qualitative inductive methods.
Results: The awareness of mutual assistance in the depopulated areas comprised 150 clauses and consequently, 39 categories were extracted. Mutual assistance was regarded to be based on one’s wellness, as shown by the response “I am the foundation of mutual assistance.” The responses of “caring about others” and “everyday human relationships create mutual assistance” showed the normal state of assistance. Therefore, it was inferred that “everyone is aware of the idea of mutual assistance” and “everyone has self-awareness and makes efforts.”
Discussion: Residents’ perception of mutual assistance was based on oneself and involved daily human relationships. The entire local community was aware of the concept of mutual assistance. Coordination of the entire local community is important for the residents to help one another.

  • Xi’an Jiaotong University, China
  • Title:Evaluating the Effect of Hierarchical Medical System on Health Seeking Behavior: a Difference-in-Differences Analysis in China
  • Time :


The unbalanced allocation of healthcare resources and the underutilization of primary care facilities are the core problems that restrict the current healthcare reforms in China. In order to encourage residents to go to primary care facilities, China implemented the Hierarchical Medical System (HMS) in 2015. This study aims to evaluate the effect of HMS on health seeking behavior in China using panel data. Statistics for the study were derived from China Family Panel Studies (CFPS) 2012, 2014, 2016 and 2018, and China health and family planning statistical yearbook 2012, 2014, 2016 and 2018. We employed the difference-in-differences (DID) model with multiple periods. In total, 61,932 residents were incorporated for a final sample covered 25 provinces. The results indicated that the implementation of HMS had a significantly positive effect on the probability of urban residents going to primary care facilities for contact. However, the effect of HMS was not significant for rural residents. Basic health insurance was a significant factor for directing residents to primary care facilities. Self-assessed health, chronic disease, economic level and educational status were also found to be focal factors of health seeking behavior. In conclusion, the introduction of HMS has led to improved health seeking behavior and is worth putting more effort into. For policy makers, basic medical insurance is still an important health policy that enables systematic health seeking behavior. Initiatives to continue to expand the adjustment range of economic incentives should be adopted to promote the implementation of HMS. However, the effect of HMS in chronic disease is poor and efforts to formulate chronic disease as a breakthrough to HMS should be carried out. Moreover, the government should increase the publicity of HMS.

  • ICESI University , United States
  • Title:Characterization of the Learning Environment of an Internal Medicine Course for Medical Students of Universidad Icesi of Cali, Colombia
  • Time :


Introduction: The learning environment has many constructs involved and there is not a single ideal instrument that measures all of them. In Colombia, there are few publications on measuring the learning environment in clinical settings, most of them have only quantitative measurements.
Objective: To characterize the learning environment of the students of the internal medicine course of ICESI University.
Material and methods: Mixed study (quantitative and qualitative), which is based on the classroom research method, where the first step is to diagnose the current learning environment.
Results: 58 students participated in the study. The DREEM overall score was of 125/200. The average of teacher’s evaluation was 6.38/7. The percentage of students who passed the final written evaluation was 96.7%. We also describe favorable and unfavorable findings in objectives, methodology, didactics, learning resources, evaluation and interaction of educational actors.
Discussion: The results allow us to say that although in general the students perceive a more positive than negative view by DREEM questionnaire, we found in the other results multiple points that can be improved. Curricular changes and comprehensive teacher training plans are necessary to meditate before, during and after their teaching practice, in order to promote educational innovation in the classroom.


I’m Nathalia Salazar Falla, physician from Cali, Colombia and where also I currently live. I started my medical studies on 2007, at Libre University in my city. Since my undergraduate training I had an important interest about adult’s pathologies, research and epidemiology and because of that, I decided to participate in this area, specially in case reports.
I finished the Medical School on 2013, being recognized as a honor student. After that, I started my rural year (a volunteer medical activity during 12 months in a vulnerable zone of my country) where I could apply my skills as a physician. When it finished, I started working as a general physician for 2 years more and at the time, I did university teaching and investigation methodology graduates.
On 2016, I decided to begin my postgraduate studies in Internal Medicine at Icesi University in Cali, Colombia until 2019. Right now, I work as an internist for Fundación Valle del Lili in Cali, one of the most prestigious health centers in the country. Also, I work as a teacher of Internal Medicine course for the Icesi University school of medicine, institution where I’m also currently doing a Master of Education and my investigation area is medical teaching.

  • University of Exeter, UK
  • Title:The Phenomenology of Healing
  • Time :


We have been using qualitative methods to study the phenomenology of healing; working with healers and their clients, health care professionals and the general public.
Healing is an emergent property, a process of change for the better leading to greater wholeness and integrity of mind, body and soul; it may involve a long journey, or a sudden transformation. Factors that facilitate it include connecting with others, nature, creativity, safety, trust and unconditional love. We have developed the concept of ‘nourishing exchanges’ as an overarching theory of healing.
The language of healing is metaphor, and explanations for it vary. Scientific materialism tends to dismiss it because nothing can be measured. But many nurses and other health care professionals accept and work with healing phenomena (sometimes surreptitiously). We have identified three overlapping concepts of where healing comes from: 1) from an external source (energy, consciousness, or your god), 2) from the activities of other people you connect with, and 3) from within, as we all have the capacity to heal.
We believe that Western medical systems need to be more inclusive and to accept and work with the phenomenology of healing, rather than rejecting it as unscientific.


Paul Dieppe is an Emeritus Professor in the medical schools of the Universities of Exeter and Bristol in the UK. His previous posts have included Professor of Rheumatology, Director of the MRC Health Services Research Collaboration, and Dean of the Medical Faculty at Bristol. For the last decade his research interests have centred on the placebo/nocebo responses, caring in health care, and healing.

  • Alexandria University, Egypt
  • Time :


Experiencing persistent auditory hallucinations may contribute to unproductive struggle and interference with valued living among patients with schizophrenia. Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) represents a new generation of behavior therapies that proposes active acceptance and achievement of worthwhile goals despite experiencing auditory hallucinations. Utilization of acceptance commitment therapy may assist in reducing auditory hallucinations and may increase patient’s feeling of control. Aim: Determine the effect of applying acceptance and commitment therapy on auditory hallucinations among patients with schizophrenia. Setting: The study was conducted at El-Maamoura Hospital for Psychiatric Medicine in Alexandria, Egypt. Subjects: A random sample of 70 male inpatients with schizophrenia was selected and divided equally into a study and a control groups (35 patients in each group). Both groups were matched as much as possible in relation to socio- demographic and clinical data. Tools: Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales (PSYRATS-AHs) and Voices Acceptance and Action Scale (VAAS). A quasi-experimental research design was utilized in this study. Results: Significant differences were found between the study and control groups immediately post and after 3 months of ACT on baseline PSYRATS& VAAS scores. Conclusion: ACT offers a promising new treatment for auditory hallucination among patients with schizophrenia. A significant improvement in auditory hallucination was found in the study group immediately after implementing ACT and after 3 months. As well as a decrement in re hospitalization rate and improvement in drug compliance for the study group compares to control one. Recommendations: ACT should be integrated in psychiatric treatment and nursing interventions of inpatients with schizophrenia who experiencing auditory hallucination.

  • Chamberlain University, United States
  • Title:Experience a Virtual Simulation Lab (VSL) and Contemporary Immersive Virtual Reality Simulation (CIVRS) Pilot Research and Non-VR Excursions
  • Time :


Provide a guided tour of a virtual simulation lab (VSL) showcasing the customizable robust simulations that furnished the backdrop for the VR pilot study:
Examine whether an educational intervention with a pilot Contemporary Immersive Virtual Reality Simulation (CIVRS) builds knowledge and is feasible to implement among nursing students and faculty.
Survey sampling, quasi-experimental, one group pre- and post-test design. Participants consisted of 21 undergraduate students and 10 undergraduate faculty. Instruments consisted of Virtual Presence Questionnaire (VPQ), Virtual Reality Sickness Questionnaire (VRSQ) and a Knowledge Test (pre- and post-test). VR airway intervention consisted of six narrated lessons: 1) headtilt/chin-lift with use of the Bag Valve Mask (BVM), 2) Oropharyngeal Airway (OPA), 3) Nasopharyngeal Airway (NPA), 4) King™ Laryngeal Airway Tube (LT), 5) Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) and 6) Endotracheal Tube (ET).
Normality testing demonstrated the faculty and student pre- and post-test differences to be normally distributed. Faculty mean post-test scores were significantly higher than faculty pre-test scores (p<.0001). Faculty had a mean pre-test score of 9 (SD=3.0) while the mean post-test score was 13 (SD=1.8). This average four-point change was of practical significance representing a 44 percent increase in the average score. The effect size was 1.76 (Cohen, 1988) or between very large and huge (Sawilowsky, 2009). Average student mean post-test scores were significantly higher than mean pre-test scores (p<.0001). Students had mean pre-test scores of 6 (SD=2.7) while the mean post-test score was 12 (SD=2.7). This average six-point change was of practical significance representing a 100 percent increase in scores. The effect size was 2.33 (Cohen, 1988) or huge (Sawilowsky 2009). Conclusions: The VR airway lab is an efficacious means of teaching difficult airway management skills to nursing students. The intervention was widely accepted by students and faculty, showed a high level of virtual presence, no cybersickness, and significantly improved knowledge of airway management (p<.0001). Biography

Dr. Dee McGonigle is the Director of the Virtual Learning Experiences Simulation
Excellence (VLESE) in the Center for Transformational Education and Learning
Innovation (TELI) at Chamberlain University and Professor in the Graduate Program in the Chamberlain College of Nursing. She has 44 years of experience in teaching and learning that includes nursing informatics, serious gaming, simulation, and virtual learning with the realities, especially VR.
Dr. McGonigle defined informatics in 1991. She co-founded the Online Journal of Nursing Informatics
(OJNI), a professional, scholarly, peer-reviewed journal in 1996 for which she was the Editor in Chief for
17 years through 2013. OJNI is currently published by the Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society (HIMSS). In 2014, Dr. McGonigle was the first one honored as a Platinum Award recipient from the Online Journal of Nursing Informatics. She developed the Foundation of Knowledge Model, the ETHICAL Model used to address ethical challenges brought about by the volatile information age and co-developed the Faculty Administrators Students Technology Strategic Integration Model (FAST SIM); the FAST SIM provides a framework from which to guide the process of technology integration into the nursing curriculum focusing on virtual simulation from the perspectives of the triad: faculty, administrator, student.
Dr. McGonigle has received over $870,000.00 in funding, presented internationally and nationally, authored workbooks, book chapters and more than 130 publications. Dr. McGonigle co-authored four textbooks: 1) The nursing informatics text, Nursing Informatics and the Foundation of Knowledge took second place as AJN’s 2014 Information Technology/Social Media Book of the Year in its 5th edition being released 2021; 2) Informatics for Health Professionals in its 2nd edition 2020, selected as a Core Title in Nursing Informatics by Doody’s Core Titles in the Health Sciences that lists the most distinguished titles in clinical medicine, nursing, allied health, and the basic sciences; 3) The text written for nurse educators to help them assimilate technology to enhance teaching and learning, Integrating
Technology into Nursing Education: Tools for the Knowledge Era, was AJN’s 2010 first place Technology Book of the Year; and 4) Virtual Simulation in Nursing Education released in 2018.
As part of the Nursing Informatics Research Team (NIRT), she led the development of an online selfassessment tool for level 3 and level 4 nursing informatics competencies, NICA L3/L4, which was cited in ANIA’s (2014) Nursing Informatics Today and ANA’s (2015) NI Scope and Standards document. Dr. McGonigle was a research team member for the development of the online self-assessment tool, TANIC, for basic level 1 and level 2 nursing informatics competencies based on the TIGER initiatives. In 2018, she was Co-PI: Evaluation of Virtual Reality Teaching and Learning Intervention research that was published in Clinical Simulations in Nursing in 2020.

Dr. McGonigle’s continuous and enduring impact on nursing informatics nursing education and virtual simulation have been recognized; she is a Fellow in the American Academy of Nursing since 2006 and a
Fellow in the NLN Academy of Nursing Education since 2013. She was the second President of the Division of Learning and Performance Environments (DLPE) for the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) in 1998.

  • TELUQ University, Canada
  • Title:MSD prevention in nursing staff : what are the best practices ?
  • Time :


The objective of this communication is to examine the application of MSD prevention practices among nursing staff and to identify organizational factors that may or may not support their application. We measured the application of prevention practices and its determinants by means of a questionnaire filled out by 399 nurses and nursing staff in Canada. A qualitative component was conducted with two focus groups in order to validate and enrich the interpretation of the survey results. Results show that most respondents “often” (4) apply MSD prevention practices in their daily professional tasks. Significant differences were observed based on position, mission of the institution, degree, and training. The characteristics of the nursing staff (position, training, etc.) and the specificities of the setting must be taken into consideration in MSD prevention interventions for nursing staff.


Elena Laroche is a professor in prevention of occupational health and safety at the TELUQ University School of Administration Sciences. Its work aims to improve occupational health through the application of preventive practices promoting risk prevention. She uses knowledge transfer models to study the processes that guide the application of preventive practices. His current research projects focus on the prevention of cancer risks among firefighters and the use of individual protection equipment and digital tools for the prevention of occupational injuries.

  • TELUQ University, Canada
  • Title:The appropriation of preventive practices by nurses: evidence of Canadian health care setting.
  • Time :


Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are a major problem for nurses, despite the availability of robust research on preventive health and safety practices. Caregivers, including nurses, continue to be one of the categories of workers affected the most by MSDs, particularly back injuries, due mainly to tasks associated with patient handling. Several researchers agree that the availability of research findings on MSD preventive measures does not in themselves guarantee their application. Many of these researchers underscored the prime need to better disseminate this knowledge and, in particular, the importance of documenting conditions facilitating the appropriation and application of MSD prevention practices evidence when implemented in the real workers’ context.

The main objective of this study is to analyze the application of MSD preventive practices among nurses and to shed light on factors that facilitated or constrained this link between evidence and practice. To attain this objective, we conducted a survey filled out by 399 nurses and the structural equation method was used to analyze the survey data.

The results of the study highlighted the limits of basic training and training in the workplace, and especially their inadequacy to the reality of nursing work. The study also notes the importance of organizational facilitation, including the importance of having evaluation and feedback mechanisms that allow nurses to comply with recommended preventive MSD measures.


Saliha Ziam is a full professor at TELUQ University of Quebec. His research interests focus knowledge transfer in health sector, health assessment tools for decision support and knowledge absorptive capacity strategies. His recent works on knowledge transfer have been published in Allergy, Asthma & Clinical Immunology Journal and Evidence & Policy.

  • Radboud university medical center, Netherlands
  • Title:Openness to new Perspectives Created by Patient Participation at the Morbidity and Mortality Meeting .
  • Time :

Patient participation in healthcare is seen as a way of improving the quality of healthcare. Inviting patients to join the discussion about an adverse event at their own Morbidity and Mortality meeting (M&MM) is an innovative way to improve the often criticised meeting and provide patient-centred care. The department of gynaecological oncology of a tertiary hospital in the Netherlands started inviting patients to their M&MM. They evaluated which practical constraints and experiences from the perspective of patients’ and their healthcare professionals’ were important and whether and how they can learn from adverse events.
Explorative qualitative research was performed with semi-structured interviews including patients and professionals who attended M&MMs in the period of 2016 – 2018. Two interview guides were developed, focusing on their experiences and practical elements of the meeting. Every interview participant signed an informed consent prior to the start of the interview. The interviews were transcribed, coded and analysed by thematic content analysis with the program Atlas.ti. This analyses process started with open coding of the transcripts and lead to a coding tree.
Eight patients and seventeen healthcare professionals (nurses, registrars, consultants) participated in the study. The most significant themes in the domain of interpersonal dynamics, were trust and safety for patients; notions of quality for healthcare professionals; the patient-doctor relationship, language, openness of communication, learning and personal impact for both patients and healthcare professionals. All participants suggested to maintain the current practical design of the meeting, especially the support from the case manager prior, during and after the meeting and to keep inviting all involved healthcare professionals.
Conclusion Both patients and healthcare professionals valued the M&MM with patient participation. Its new design can be organised in a safe environment when conditions such as a stable patient-doctor relationship are adhered. It also provided more opportunities to learn from the meeting in which healthcare professionals felt more comfortable over time.
Current research to further improve the M&MM with patient participation focuses on how learning points from the meeting can lead to clinical practice change. In addition, research in different hospital departments is currently conducted to inform general guidelines for patient participation at the M&MM that are applicable in different contexts.

  • University of Regina, Canada
  • Title:Rediscovering Caregiving Traditions through Grandmothers’ Stories to Assist Family Coping with Stress Related to the Covid 19 Pandemic
  • Time :

The Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC, 2015) report calls for organizations to address the mental health gaps between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Canadians. The magnitude of lost caregiving roles for First Nations mothers in Saskatchewan, Canada was identified in the 2010 Saskatchewan Child Welfare Report where 90% of children in Child Welfare were of this descent, and no longer raised with a connection to their culture’s traditions and beliefs. Depression, anxiety and the contributing factors of substance abuse are the most common mental health conditions in Canada. Current mental health programs based in Judeo-Christian interventions do not meet the needs of Indigenous families), therefore, interventions should be more aligned with Indigenous traditions and include the integration of traditional healing methods. Due to COVID-19 pandemic, the mental health and stress on Indigenous families are further complicated by the loss of structure, socialization and relationship building.
Current research is exploring how grandmother’s stories of traditional interventions may provide Indigenous families living in north central Regina with meaningful and culturally appropriate pathways to cope with stress and anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic. The benefit of Grandmothers’ shared information to gain community participation in lifestyle health is the respect they hold by a community to deal with challenging situations. Their participation in a breastfeeding promotion resulted in a twofold increase of breastfeeding. Collecting information in regards to infection control would lend itself to community use of preventive measures in the spread of Covid 19, recognizing the population’s risk for illness and morbidity dealing with more chronic illness and poverty. It is well known that prior to European contact the population had little disease due to traditional practices that prevented outbreaks or quickly dealt with them.
This research promises support to family cohesiveness, bonding and attachment during the COVID -19 pandemic. Develop of resources established and approved by the grandmothers that families in the north central Regina Indigenous population can use to manage anxiety and stress during COVID-19. Along with this is establishing the caregiving identity of mothers, consistence with the beliefs and definitions of the Indigenous culture to guide and direct government policies put in place to assist this population to cope with mental issues they deal with at this time.

  • University of Texas Southwestern, USA
  • Title:NICU Parent Mental Health and Impact on Neonatal Outcomes
  • Time :

Parental mental health disorders are prevalent in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) despite prior history of mental health needs or not. The NICU itself is a risk factor for developing mental health needs, however, screening and treatments for parental mental health needs are not currently a standard of practice in NICUs. There is a growing body of literature supporting that parental mental health disorders left undiagnosed and treated affect outcomes of children and their families. Due to this, there is a higher need for standardized screening, diagnosis, and treatment of parental mental health needs. This talk will focus on current recommendations and novel strategies for treatment of parental mental health in the NICU.
Margaret “Katie” Hoge, M.D. completed her medical school at Wake Forest School of Medicine (’14). She completed her pediatric residency (’17) and neonatal-perinatal medicine fellowship (’20) at UT Southwestern in Dallas, Texas. Currently, she is completing a second fellowship in Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics at UT Southwestern in Dallas. Her career goals are to continue to improve the care and developmental outcomes of NICU patients and their families both in the NICU and post NICU discharge through novel clinical care. Her research focuses on the effects a NICU admission on parental mental health and its impacts on outcomes for NICU graduates and their families, particularly focusing on the concept of Vulnerable Child Syndrome. She has been internationally recognized for her work in this field by creating novel preventative therapies. She is currently serving as the American Academy of Pediatrics Trainees and Early Career Neonatologists (TECaN) National Advocacy Campaign Chair which is focusing on raising awareness on the importance of mental health within the NICU.

  • Universitas Advent Indonesia
  • Title:Development and Evaluation of a Preparation Model for the Indonesian Nursing Licensure Examination: A Participatory Action Research
  • Time :


The long-standing underachievement in the Indonesian national nursing competency examination (NNCE) has been a common concern, and there is limited information on the preparation program for this licensure examination. A quasi-experimental study was carried out to develop an NNCE preparation program model and evaluate its effectiveness in increasing competency among nursing graduates at a full-boarding private university in Indonesia. The participants of the study were selected with the purposive sampling method. The 23 course coordinators and clinical instructors met the inclusion criteria of having worked for at least five years as classroom teachers and at least one year as course coordinators or clinical instructors. The 85 nursing graduates met the inclusion criteria of having finished the internship program and planned to take the NNCE. The model was developed using participatory action research. The increase in the competency level and the level of perceived readiness of the nursing graduates and the satisfaction of both the participant educators and nursing graduates were measured quantitatively. The proposed model consists of core components and essential concepts. The core components are a holistic preparation process, active involvement and participation, knowledge and skill specialty, sharp examination-taking and skills, motivation to join the program and self-confidence to pass the NNCE, and time commitment for the preparation program. The essential concepts consist of awareness and trust, desire to change, sense of responsibility, mutual collaboration, equipped and empowered to act, definite direction and goals, mentoring. The model’s evaluation indicated a significant increase in competency level, overall perceived readiness for the national nursing competency examination, and degree of satisfaction with the preparation program. The implementation of the preparation model significantly increased the nursing graduates’ competency level, and both the participating educators and nursing graduates were satisfied with its effectiveness.
Licensure examination preparation model, nursing licensure examination, nursing graduates, participatory action research.


Educational Background:
• PhD (Int’l Nursing) : Department of International Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Prince of Songkla University, Thailand (2019).
• MSc (PH Nursing) : Department of Nursing, Faculty of Public Health, Mahidol University, Thailand (1995).
• BSc (Nursing) : Dept. of Nursing Science, Universitas Advent Indonesia (UNAI), Bandung, Indonesia (1985)
Academic Rank: Associate Professor
Professional Experience:
• 1985 – 1988: Nurse, San Dimas Golden Age, San Dimas, CA, USA.
• 1989 – 1995: Teacher, Faculty of Nursing Science, Universitas Advent Indonesia, Indonesia
• 1995 – 2000: Teacher, Faculty of Nursing Science, Assumption University, Bangkok, Thailand
• 2000 – Present: Teacher, Faculty of Nursing Science, Universitas Advent Indonesia, Indonesia

  • University of Central Florida
  • Title:Motivational Factors and Barriers Affecting Seniors’ Decision to Relocate to Senior Living Communities
  • Time :

As the world population is aging rapidly, the U.S. is also experiencing considerable growth in its older population. More than 20% of the U.S. residents are expected to reach the age of 65 and older by 2030 due to the aging baby boomer population and the increasing life expectancy. Because of the growth in the older population, and the increase in their chronic conditions, it is evident that the demographic-driven demand for long-term care will continue to rise.
This study aimed to explore factors affecting seniors’ intention to relocate to a senior living facility. More specifically, the purpose of this study was to examine the influence of push and pull motivational factors and perceived barriers on seniors’ intention to relocate to a senior living facility (SLF). In addition, the mediating role of perceived barriers on the relationships between push motivational factors and intention to relocate and pull motivational factors and intention to relocate were explored. The data of the study was collected from 363 seniors. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis was conducted to test the study hypotheses.

The results indicated that health related, social and family/friend related, housing and property related push motivational factors and facility related pull motivational factor positively influenced seniors’ intention to relocate to SLFs. In addition, the study results revealed that family related barriers, economic barriers, socio-psychological barriers, and knowledge and information barriers negatively affected seniors’ intention to relocate to SLFs. In terms of the mediation effects, the study results indicated that (1) family related barriers mediated the positive relationship between health related push motivational factor and intention to relocate; (2) economic barriers mediated the positive relationship between facility related pull motivational factor and intention to relocate; (3) socio-psychological barriers mediated the positive relationship between health related push motivational factor and intention to relocate; and (4) socio-psychological barriers mediated the positive relationship between facility related pull motivational factor and intention to relocate. The findings of this study provide valuable theoretical contributions in the context senior living literature and important practical implications for SLF operators, health care facilitators and government agencies.

Suja Chaulagain is an Assistant Professor at Rosen College of Hospitality Management at University of Central Florida. She holds a Ph.D. in Hospitality Management from University of Central Florida. She received her Master of Business Administration (MBA) from Oklahoma Christian University, and her Master of Health Care Management (MHCM) and Bachelor of Health Care Management (BHCM) from Pokhara University, Nepal. Dr. Chaulagain’s work experience spans over diverse fields of hospitality management, health care management, and hospital administration. Her research foci are on the areas of the integration of hospitality and health care, elderly consumer behavior in the hospitality and healthcare industries, senior housing and relocation, and medical and wellness tourism.

  • University of Peloponnese
  • Title:Registered Nurse PerceptionsTowards the Implementation of Nursing Diagnoses in Perioperative Care: A Qualitative Study
  • Time :

Nursing diagnoses constitute an essential step to the nursing process and a challenging goal in embedding them into clinical practice. Our aim was to explore registered nurses’ perceptions towards the implementation of nursing diagnoses in perioperative care and the factors affecting their applicability. Thus, a qualitative study with open-ended questions was carried out between February and April 2020. The study convenient sample consisted of 35 registered nurses working in the operating room and surgical clinics of a university hospital in Greece. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis with an inductive approach.
Three themes emerged from this analysis justifying participants’ agreement with the implementation of nursing diagnoses: ‘quality of the perioperative nursing care’, ‘interdisciplinary collaboration and communication’ and ‘ethical issues’. In addition, facilitating and hindering factors for their implementation in clinical practice were identified. Three themes emerged functioning as facilitators: ‘role of the nurse and nursing care organization’, ‘role of the patient’ and ‘interdisciplinary collaboration’. The themes which were identified as hindering factors were: ‘work organization’, ‘patient needs’ and ‘necessary requirements’. Registered nurses in Greece expressed positive perceptions towards the implementation of nursing diagnoses in perioperative care, highlighting their importance and utilization in the care process. These results can be used to develop strategies to promote nursing diagnosing in perioperative nursing and can be used for further research.

I’m Vasiliki Tsiami, registered nurse from Athens, Greece and where also I currently live. I started my nursing studies on 2012, at University of Peloponnese in Sparta.
I finished the Nursing School on 2016. On 2017, I decided to begin my postgraduate studies in Health Care Administration and Crisis Management at University of Peloponnese, Greece until 2020. The last three years I work as a registered nurse in D’ University Surgical Clinic at Attikon University Hospital in Athens, one of the most prestigious health centers in the country. My occupation with perioperative nursing care was a stimulus for further and deeper research in care process, the quality and the barriers appeared in order to be fulfilled by the perioperative nurses.

  • Sana’a University
  • Title:First COVID-19 Cases with High Secondary Infection Smong Health Workers, Sana'a Capital, April 2020: Lessons Learned and Future Opportunities
  • Time :

Objectives: Confirm existence of COVID-19 outbreak, conduct contact tracing, and recommend
control measures.
Methods: Two COVID-19 cases in Sana’a Capital were met the WHO case definition. Data were
collected from cases and contacts who were followed for 14 days. Nasopharyngeal swabs were
taken for confirmation by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).
Results: Two confirmed Yemeni male patients aged 20 and 40 years who had no travel history
were admitted to hospital on 24 April 2020. Regarding the first patient, symptoms started on
April 18th, 2020 then improved and discharged on May 5th while the second patient’s symptoms
started on April 22nd but died on April 29th, 2020. Both patients had 54 contacts, 17 (32%) were
health workers (HWs). Four contacts (7%) were confirmed, two of them were HWs that needed
hospitalization. The secondary attack rate (sAR) was 12% among HWs compared to 5% among
other contacts.
Conclusions: First COVID-19 outbreak was confirmed among Yemeni citizens with high sAR
among HWs. Strict infection control among HWs should be ensured. Physical distancing, maskwearing with appropriate disinfecting measures should be promoted especially among contacts.
There is a need to strengthen national capacities to assess, detect, and respond to public health
Keywords: COVID-19; Contact Tracing; Health Workers; Outbreak; Yemen.
Dr. Ehab Fatehi Ahmed Al-Sakkaf, 31 years old, General Physician and Epidemiologist, at Field
Epidemiology Training Program at Ministry of Public Health and Population, Sana’a Yemen.
MBBS and Advance FETP Graduate. Public health and Epidemiology professional with experience and
skills in Applied Epidemiology, health Management, and field supervision and coordination, and training.
Strong expertise in writing of proposal, report and research, and data analytics and statistics. Fluency in
Arabic and very good in English Languages.

  • Amref Health Africa
  • Title:Midwives’ Job Satisfaction and Intention to Leave theirCurrent Position in Developing Regions of Ethiopia
  • Time :

The aim of this research was to analyze midwives’ job satisfaction and intention to leave in
developing regions of Ethiopia.
A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted amongst 107 midwives in four developing
regions of Ethiopia. All midwives who were working in 26 health facilities participated in the
study. A structured self-administered questionnaire, and in depth key informant interview guides,
were used to collect data. Job satisfaction was measured by nine dimensions and intention to
leave their current position was measured using three questions.
More than two-thirds (67%) of the midwives were female, with a mean age of 26.1 (sd ± 4.2)
years old. Less than half (45%) of the midwives were satisfied with their job, less than half
(42%) were satisfied with ‘work environment’ and less than half (45%) were satisfied with
‘relationship with management’ and ‘job requirements’. Relatively better satisfaction rates were
reported regarding ‘professional status’, of which more than half (56%) of midwives were
satisfied, followed by more than half (54%) of midwives being satisfied with ‘staff interaction’.
Almost two-fifths (39%) of midwives intended to leave their current position.
Job dissatisfaction and intention to leave rates amongst midwives in developing regions in
Ethiopia are a source of concern. The majority of midwives were most dissatisfied with their
working environment and issues related to payment. Their intention to leave their current position was inversely influenced by job satisfaction. The introduction of both financial and
nonfinancial mechanisms could improve midwives’ job satisfaction, and improve retention rates
within the profession.
Keywords: Midwives; Job satisfaction; Job retention; developing regions Ethiopia
Dr.Yeshitila Hailu is a Chief Public Health Specialist with more than 28 years both clinical &
Public health experiences at various institutions-both governmental and non-governmental
From 1993 to 2003, he worked at various health institutions including health centers, General
hospital and medical centers both at public and private health facilities.
From September 2003 to February 2012, he worked for Red Cross of Ethiopia at various
positions including deputy director of National Blood Bank, Health and Care Program
Department Manager as well as Deputy Secretary General for programs. While working for Red
Cross, he has received quite a number of certificates and awards from different institutions
including IFRC,ICRC,WHO,CDC-Atlanta, UNFPA, AABB, Various Red Cross National
societies, Universities(AAU, Maker ere university, London school of Medicine) up on
completion of short term trainings and making panel presentations in Africa and in the west.
Moreover, He attended quite a number of international meetings, conferences, trainings and
colloquium in Beijing, South Africa, Kenya, Tanzania, Egypt, Italy, Germany, USA, Canada,
Chile, Netherlands, Sweden, and Finland.
After an intensive course in Ontario, corn well town, Canada in 2008, he is one of the heath team
members for the global FACT (Field assessment coordination team) under the IFRC roaster for
any global mission.
He had also received a partial fellowship award of to attend the XXXIst International Congress
of the ISBT, held in Berlin, Germany, June 26 – July 1, 2010, after applying for a Dr. Harold
Gun son Fellowship .He had given and facilitated a number of health related trainings to health
professionals, volunteers, journalists and his own staff.
He was also owner and General Manager of Tarma Ber Health and Social Services consultancy
firm from 2009-2010. Moreover, he was editor in chief

  • University of Cambridge
  • Title:Reduction of Urinary Tract Infection by Modification of Foley catheter
  • Time :

Bladder catheterization is one of the most frequent procedures
performed in a hospital, which is utilized in medical conditions such as urinary
retention (rooted in urinary obstruction caused by urinary stones, tumor, urethral
stricture, benign prostatic hyperplasia), Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) and inflammation (cystitis, urethritis, and prostatitis), drugs (anticholinergics and alphaadrenergic agonists), neurological disorders (brain and spinal cord injury,
cerebrovascular accident, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson’s disease, and
dementia), neurogenic bladder, and abdominal and pelvic surgeries. Bladder
catheterization may be performed for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes.
Depending on how long the catheters remain in the bladder, there are short-term
and long-term catheterizations]. The majority of UTIs (70%) are associated with
urinary catheterization. Moreover, more than 97% of patients admitted to the
intensive care units have catheter related UTI .Due to the urine stasis behind the
catheter balloon,the risk of catheter-induced bacterial colonization increases
from 3 to 10% per day to 100% in case of long-term catheterization. There is a
new design of urinary catheter for reduction of urinary tract infection by
modification of current catheter.
Navid faraji has master’s degree of medical surgery in branch of
nursing, he was born in Saqqez, Iran, on 21 september 1993. He graduated with
a bachelor’s degree in nursing on 2016 and a master’s degree on 2020 both in
the School of Nursing and Midwifery, Urmia University of Medical Sciences,
Urmia, Iran. He has been working in the ICU section of Omid Hospital in Urmia,
Iran for three years. He is also preparing nursing Bachelors for a master exam at
a medical science institute. In addition he was ranked 2end in the master
national nursing exam in 2017. He is interested in doing research in the medical
science fields specially in the field of innovation and initiative in treatment and
care methods in different patients. His current goal is to study for a doctorate at
one of the best creditable universities in the world.